Saffron farms in Iran
Iran has a global brand in the field of saffron production. Many cities in Iran are known as saffron plantations. If you are also interested in knowing which provinces are saffron planting centers in Iran, stay with us in this article.
Saffron is exported by Iran to 90% of the world. The cultivation of this spice dates back to ancient times in Iran. Having an excellent aroma, it is an expensive and valuable spice
One province of Iran, namely Khorasan, produces most of the world’s saffron
In addition to having many medicinal and therapeutic properties, saffron is known as the world’s most expensive spice. Used in the pharmaceutical industry
Iran is a country with little water, and this plant does not need much water to grow.
The fact that process of planting and harvesting saffron is done by human resources and almost no special tools are used.
History of saffron in Iran
In the past, saffron was known as Zarparan, which means a flower whose feathers look like gold. The planting and use of saffron dates back to 3000 to 3500 years ago. There are disagreements about the origin of saffron in world history; Some believe that the origin of saffron is the ancient state of the Medes in Iran, while others say that saffron was cultivated for the first time in ancient Greece and a region called Statius, as well as in Turkey and Southwest Asia.
But the documents actually show that the first saffron fields were established by Iranians. As the first saffron growers in the world, these people introduced the properties of saffron to other nations, including the Greeks, Chinese, Romans, and Arabs, and taught the Islamic countries around the Mediterranean how to plant it in the first to fourth centuries of Hijri. Also, the first export of saffron from Iran to the countries of Greece, Rome, and China happened during the Parthian period.
In general, according to historical evidence, Iranians have paid great attention to saffron since ancient times and used it in various edible and non-edible uses, such as dyeing cloth, making cosmetic oils, welcoming the elders in Bazm gatherings, writing letters of sultans, etc. they did. For example, during the Achaemenid period, saffron was used to flavor food and decorate bread.
▶ Suggested study: What season is the time to harvest saffron?
Introduction of saffron-producing provinces in Iran
The growth period of saffron is in autumn and winter and its resting period is in summer. Therefore, areas with very cold winters slow down the growth of saffron. Also, if the rainfall and air humidity are high in the summer season, the saffron bulbs will be damaged and destroyed.
Therefore, the northern and southern provinces of Iran, such as Mazandaran, Golestan, Gilan, Hormozgan, Bushehr, etc., are not favorable areas for saffron cultivation, and in general, subtropical regions with hot and dry summers and mild winters are the most suitable option for saffron cultivation.
Iran is the main region under saffron cultivation in the world and according to the latest statistics, the main saffron-producing provinces in Iran are as follows:
1. Khorasan Razavi
Razavi Khorasan is the first province that produces the most saffron in Iran with a cultivated area of 82 thousand hectares.
2. South Khorasan
South Khorasan is the second largest producer of saffron in Iran after Razavi Khorasan province with a cultivated area of 15 thousand hectares.
3. North Khorasan
Saffron is cultivated and produced in eight cities of North Khorasan province. Faruj city with a cultivated area of 2,453 hectares and an annual production of about 14 tons of saffron is in the first place, Shirvan city is in second place and Esfrain is in third place production in North Khorasan province.
After the three provinces of Khorasan, Isfahan produces the largest amount of Iranian saffron. The cultivated area of this province is about 1300 hectares and saffron is planted in most of the cities of this province.
The cultivated area of Yazd province is 900 hectares and the annual production of saffron is about 3 tons.
7. Other provinces
Other important provinces that are working in the field of saffron production in Iran include Fars, Hamadan, Qazvin, Lorestan, Khuzestan, Semnan, etc. These provinces together produce about 2% of the total saffron in Iran.
How does saffron grow in Iran?
▶ To cultivate saffron, we need these in the first stage:
1) Soil: The soil should not be too sandy or too clayey.
2) Climate: The best climate for this plant is a temperate climate and dry summers and mild winters.
3) Saffron onion: Saffron onion, which is suitable for planting, should be the size of a walnut and free from any disease or contamination, and its weight should be 8 grams.
4) Planting time: Mid-May to early July is the best time to harvest onions in Iran
1) Irrigation: Saffron fields are irrigated 5 times a year. The first irrigation is in early October after planting saffron, the second irrigation after harvesting saffron flowers is about 40 days after the first irrigation, the third irrigation in early March and after fertilizing the land, the fourth irrigation in late March, and the fifth irrigation in April.
2) Weed Removal: Weed removal is a sensitive task because the flowers should not be damaged.
1) Picking flowers: The time of harvesting flowers is different in each region, and this must happen before sunrise. Super Negin TIDA saffron is harvested at the best time before the flowers wither and gather
2) Separating the stigma (red strands from inside the flower): This must be done quickly to prepare the best saffron. Hard work is usually done by hand.
3) Drying the strings: The drying method and the appropriate device for drying the flowers are of special importance for the quality of the flowers.
Packaging: The vacuum of the product is of special importance for maintaining the freshness of saffron